Can I set a field to appear at the same position on subsequent pages of my template?

The repeat option for fields is available only for forms-based (standard) eDocBuilder templates, so if you're working on an Interactive Designer template, that is why you're not seeing the option.

With a forms-based template, it is an available option in the Format tab's "Repeat Field" dropdown menu.

Path: eDoc Admin > Templates >Template Name > Field setup > Field Name > Format Tab > Scroll down where you see "Repeat Field"